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A 



HISTORY 

OP 

INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES. 

BY JOHN BECKMANN, 

PUBLIC PROFESSOR OF ECONOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF 
GOTTINGEN. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN, 

BY WILLIAM JOHNSTON. 

THIRD EDITION, 

CAREFULLY CORRECTED, AND ENLARGED BY THE ADDITION OF SEVERAL 
NEW ARTICLES. 



IN FOUR VOLUMES. 

VOL. III. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN ; 
BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY ; R. PRIESTLEY; R. SCHOLEY; 
T. HAMILTON; W. OTUIDGE ; J. WALKER; R. FENNER; J, 
BELL; J. BOOKER; E. EDWARDS; AND J. HARDING. 

1817. 

Co rss ; ' 

T 

IS 

l ol~7 

V.3 



CONTENTS 



OF 

THE THIRD VOLUME. 



Page 

GARDEN-FLOWERS l 

Lending-houses 11 

Chemical names of metals . . 50 

Zinc * 67 

Look- censors . . * 93 

Exclusive privilege for printing hooks 109 

Catalogues of hooks 118 

Aurum fulminans . . . 128 

Carp 133 

Camp-mills 151 

Mirrors 154 

Glass- cutting. Etching on glass 207 

Soap 224 

Madder 254 

Jugglers * • 264 

Camel . . ...,315 

Artificial ice. Cooling liquors 322 

Hydrometer 355 

Lighting of streets 376 

Night-Watch 397 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Leaf- skeletons 

Bills of exchange 

Guns. Gun-locks 

Seignette y s salt. Sal polychrest 447 

Plant impressions 

Calibre-rod 4QI 

Wild chesnut-tree 4Q4 

Almanacks. Court calendar 468 

Ribbon-loom ^ 

Turkish paper. Marbled paper 500 

Leather snuff boxes 507 

The Pantaleon 

Leyden Flask 

Price currents 523 

Index to the authors and books quoted in the Third 

Volume 525 

Index to the most remarkable things mentioned in the 
Third Volume . 537 



HISTORY 



of 

INVENTIONS. 



GARDEN-FLOWERS. 

Some of the flowers introduced into our gardens, 
and now cultivated either on account of their 
beauty or the pleasantness of their smell, have 
been procured from plants which grew wild, and 
which have been changed, or, according to the 
opinion of florists, improved, by the art of the gar- 
dener. The greater part of them however came 
originally from distant countries, where they grow, 
in as great perfection as ours, without the assist- 
ance of man. Though we often find mention of 
flowers in the works of the Greeks and the Ro- 
mans, it appears that they were contented with 
those which grew in their own neighbourhood. I 
do not remember to have read that they ever took 
the trouble to form gardens for the particular pur- 
pose of rearing in them foreign flowers or plants. 

VOL. III. 



B 



2 HISTORY OF INVENTIONS. 

But even supposing that I may be mistaken, for I 
do not pretend to have examined this subject 
very minutely, I think I may with great pro- 
bability venture to assert, that the modern taste 
for flowers came from Persia to Constantinople, 
and was imported thence to Europe, for the first 
time, in the sixteenth century. At any rate, wo 
find that the greater part of the productions of 
our flower-gardens were conveyed to us by that 
channel. Ciusius and his friends, in particular, 
contributed very much to excite this taste ; and 
the new plants brought from both the Indies by 
the travellers who then continued still more fre- 
quently to visit these countries, tended to in- 
crease it. That period also produced some skilful 
gardeners, who carried on a considerable trade 
with the roots and seeds of flowers; and these 
likewise assisted to render it more general. 
Among these were John and Vespasian Robin, 
gardeners to Henry IV of France, * and Emanuel 
Sweert, gardener to the emperor Rodolphus II,f 
from whom the botanists of that time procured 
many rarities, as appears from different passages 
of their works. As this taste for flowers prevails 
more at present than at any former period, a 
short history of some of the objects of it may 
not be disagreeable, perhaps, to many of my 
readers. 

* See Haller’s Bibliotheca bo tap. i. p. 398 . 

f Ibid. p. 411.